Hermannsburg (2) 1958 - 1959

List compiled October 2, 1958 at Hermannsburg
CRS E944, Item Hermannsburg
National Archives of Australia, Darwin Office


                  HERMANNSBURG PART COLOURED STATISTICS and REPORT

This report was written by Patrol Officer Colin Macleod.

Upon your instructions I proceeded to Hermannsburg on October 2, 1958 to list
      (1) Part coloured persons in family groups
      (2) Their names and castes
      (3) Ages
      (4) Mode of living
      (5) Education standard
      (6) Length of residence
      (7) Their remuneration
      (8) Whether or not they were members of the Church

However, of the above, nos. 4, 5 and 8 are general throughout and I intend to broadly
comment on them at the outset.

The mode of living at Hermannsburg is in all cases, with the possible exception of
Menassa (who with ten pounds per week is almost one of the staff), that typical of
full blood natives. Generally these people live in roughly constructed wirlies in
the camp area alongside their full blood friends and relations. A few camp in old
huts constructed many years ago by the Mission. However, living conditions in these
huts, are no better than those in the wirlies.

Fires are still lit everywhere, dogs are numerous, food is still cooked in a very
primitive fashion and the clothing and cleanliness of the inhabitants is far below
what one would expect of part coloured peoples.

The educational standard is that of elementary primary. Most can struggle through
simple prose reading, and all born this century have at least been to school. Naturally
those still at school or recently left have their education still fully in their
memories.

There seems to be one exception to this somewhat low standard, and that is the Williams
family. These were educated in Alice Springs and have only been at Hermannsburg since
their parents died five years ago. Gus Williams in particular seems a very bright and
capable person.

Upon being questioned everyone claimed to be a member of the congregation.

As one reads through the attached information it cannot help but be noticed that the
tendency for part coloureds is to mate with a full blood or at least with a person of
a darker caste. As a result there are many people of 7/8 caste and extremely few of
1/2 caste blood. This trend seems to be encouraged by the Church authorities.

Another noticeable thing seems to be the acceptance of the part-coloureds by the full
bloods. I made some shallow enquiries into this, and gathered that this was due to the
tendency already mentioned of marrying full bloods. A possible exception to this would
be Gus Williams who to me seemed more like the part-coloured of the town areas in his
manner and behaviour.

The money earned at Hermannsburg is mostly all spent there in the very well stocked
store. This store carries over two thousand pounds worth of stock and opens twice daily.

The Mission issues normal dry rations, and school children are given three meals each
school day. The Hospital also caters for supplementary rations for those who are ill or
are in the pre school or post school categories.

Below are the details of each family group.

INKAMALA FAMILY

Reinhold Inkamala, F/B, born 1894 Hermannsburg, part time stockman
Clara Inkamala, H/C, born 1900 Hermannsburg
From this couple descend all Inkamalas

Max Inkamala, 3/4C, born 1935 Hermannsburg, stockman
Siglinda Inkamala, 7/8C, born 1937 Hermannsburg
No children

Clifford Inkamala, 3/4C, born 1927 Hermannsburg, stone mason
Phillis Inkamala, H/C, born 1928 Glen Helen, house girl,
  at Hermannsburg since a little girl
Belinda Inkamala, 5/8C, born 1948 Hermannsburg, school
Beulah Inkamala, 5/8C, born 1953 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Sophia Inkamala, 5/8C, born 1957 Hermannsburg

Adolf Inkamala, 3/4C, born 1916 Hermannsburg, artist
Lorraine Inkamala, F/B, born 1923 Glen Helen, at Hermannsburg
  since marriage, casual work
Janet Inkamala, 15/16C, born 1943 Hermannsburg, school
Anthony Inkamala, 15/16C, born 1948 Hermannsburg, school
Marigold Inkamala, 15/16C, born 1952, school
Joseph Inkamala, 15/16C, born 1956 Hermannsburg

Gerhard Inkamala, 3/4C, born 1917 Hermannsburg, artist
Avis Inkamala, F/B, born 1923 Hermannsburg, piece work (rugs)
Lindberg Inkamala, 7/8C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, stockman
Noreen Inkamala, 7/8C, born 1947 Hermannsburg, school
Kathleen Inkamala, 7/8C, born 1950 Hermannsburg, school
Gwen Inkamala, 7/8C, born 1952 Hermannsburg, school
Clara Inkamala, 7/8C, born 1954 Hermannsburg
Dela Inkamala, 7/8C, born 1957 Hermannsburg


Edmund Inkamala, single, 3/4C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, stockman

Miriam Inkamala, single, 3/4C, born 1937 Hermannsburg

Norma Inkamala, 3/4C, born 1925 Hermannsburg, school washing
Leonard Injit, F/B, born 1920 Hermannsburg, bore labourer

Tjua Enalanga, F/B, born 1929 Haast Bluff, stockman
Hilda Enalanga (nee Inkamala), 3/4C, born 1932 Hermannsburg
Cecilia Enalanga, 7/8C, born 1948 Hermannsburg, school
Ida Enalanga, 7/8C, born 1949 Hermannsburg, school
Baxtor Enalanga, 7/8C, born 1951 Hermannsburg, school
Elma Enalanga, 7/8C, born 1952 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Cheryl Enalanga, 7/8C, born 1954 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Merwyn Enalanga, 7/8C, born 1956 Hermannsburg

WILLIAMS FAMILY

All the Williams family were born at Alice Springs and came to Hermannsburg
when their parents died about five years ago.

Gus Williams, 3/4C, born 1938 Alice Springs, not working at the present
Rhonda Williams, wife, 3/4C, born 1943 Hermannsburg, pregnant

Brian Williams, 3/4C, born 1946 Alice Springs, schoold
Elsie Williams, 3/4C, born 1936 Alice Springs, hospital worker
Ethel Williams, 3/4C, born 1943 Alice Springs, school
Mavis Williams, 3/4C, born 1944 Alice Springs, school
Ema Williams, 3/4C, born 1947 Alice Springs, school
Judith Williams, 3/4C, born 1949 Alice Springs, school

Edgar Kontawarra, F/B, born 1932 Hermannsburg, labourer
Kathleen Kontawarra (nee Williams), 3/4C, born 1933 Alice Springs, in hospital
Daral (Daryl) Kontawarra, 7/8C, born 1955 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Hildegard Kontawarra, 7/8C, born 1958 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Margaret Swan, 3/4C, born 1952 Hermannsburg, pre-school, father Monty Swan


RONDJI Family

Edward Rondji, 3/4C, born 1914 Hermannsburg, yard builder
  Wife was a f/B now deceased
Basil Rondji, 7/8C, born 1936 Hermannsburg, not working
  Recently married Bernice, a F/B, no children
Rondah Rondji, 7/8C, born 1939 Hermannsburg, not working
Joseph Rondji, 7/8C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, yard building
Claire Rondji, 7/8C, born 1947 Hermannsburg, school
Rhoda Rondji, 7/8C, born 1949 Hermannsburg, school

ABBOTT Family

Descendents of Theodore Abbott H/C now deceased and
his wife Karen, F/B.

Agnes Abbott, 3/4C, born 1942 Hermannsburg
  Presently in Hospital in Alice Springs
Dalton Abbott, 3/4C, born 1944 Hermannsburg, school
Mary Abbott, 3/4C, born 1946 Hermannsburg, school
Elva Abbott, 3/4C, born 1950 Hermannsburg, school
Dorothy Abbott, 3/4C, born 1952 Hermannsburg, school

Arthur Abbott, 3/4C, born 1916 Hermannsburg, saddler
Katie Abbott, F/B, born 1921 Hermannsburg, sewing and washing
David Abbott, 7/8C, born 1937 Hermannsburg, teachers aide
Clem Abbott, 7/8C, born 1939 Hermannsburg, teachers aide
Raeleen Abbott, 7/8C, born 1944 Hermannsburg, school girl
Daphne Abbott, 7/8C, born 1946 Hermannsburg, school girl
Gerald Abbott, 7/8C, born 1948 Hermannsburg, school boy
Marie Abbott, 7/8C, born 1953 Hermannsburg, pre-school


EBATARINJA Family

Descendents of Ruth Ebatarinja, H/C, born 1886, husband F/B deceased.

Ruth Ebatarinja, H/C, born 1886 Hermannsburg, aged,
  literate but eyes failing
Children of Ruth are Godfrey, Cornelius, Walter, Minna


Godfrey Ebatarinja, 3/4C, born 1904 Hermannsburg, stockman
Linda Ebatarinja, F/B, born 1910 Hermannsburg, baker
Emily Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1937 Hermannsburg, garden
Daniel Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1940 Hermannsburg, not working
Theodore Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, labourer
Godfrey Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1943 Hermannsburg, school
Angela Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1946 Hermannsburg, school

Arnulf Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1931 Hermannsburg, labourer,
  father is Godfrey Ebatarinja
Tobea Ebatarinja, F/B, born 1937 Hermannsburg, infirm
Oswald Ebatarinja, 15/16C, born 1955 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Gertrude Ebatarinja, 15/16C, born 1956 Hermannsburg, pre-school

Dennis Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1932 Hermannsburg, stockman,
  father is Godfrey Ebatarinja
Nancy Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1937 Hermannsburg, not working
Ursula Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1956 Hermannsburg, pre-school

Cornelius Ebatarinja, 3/4C, born 1918 Hermannsburg, not working
Graham Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1947 Hermannsburg, school

Walter Ebatarinja, 3/4C, now resident in Alice Springs,
  wife is a F/B
Glenda Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1947 Hermannsburg,
  school at Hermannsburg
Virginia Ebatarinja, 7/8C, born 1940 Hermannsburg, baker


Minna Ebatarinja, 3/4C, born 1901 Hermannsburg, school laundry
Lawrence Kalbarinja, F/B, born 1901 Hermannsburg, hygiene labourer
Ambrose Kalbarinja, 7/8C, born 1925 Hermannsburg, woodshop

KATAKARINJA family

Ambrose Katakarinja, 7/8C, born 1934 Hermannsburg, wood worker
Yvonne Katakarinja, H/C, born 1940 Alice Springs
Johanas Katakarinja, 11/16C, born 1956 Alice Springs
Tony Katakarinja, 11/16C, born 1958 Alice Springs

RABARA family

Rosa Rabara, H/C, born 1894 Hermannsburg, aged but literate,
  husband was a F/B now deceased
  Children of Rosa are Muriel and Christopher

Muriel Rabara, 3/4C, born 1924 Hermannsburg, piece work, rugs
Edwin Pareroultja, F/B, born 1916 Hermannsburg, artist
Dora Pareroultja, 7/8C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, garden labourer
Elenor Pareroultja, 7/8C, born 1944 Hermannsburg, school girl
Barbara Pareroultja, 7/8C, born 1946 Hermannsburg, school girl
Verna Pareroultja, 7/8C, born 1949 Hermannsburg, school girl
Rosa Pareroultja, 7/8C, born 1954 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Hodin Pareroultja, 7/8C, born 1957 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Ivy Pareroultja, 7/8C, born 1952 Hermannsburg, pre-school

Christopher Rabara, 3/4C, born 1907 Hermannsburg, deceased
Minica Rabara, F/B, born 1907 Hermannsburg, house girl
Norman Rabara, 5/8C, born 1935 Hermannsburg, stockman
Leonardia Rabara, 7/8C, born 1931 Hermannsburg, house girl
Noel Rabara, 7/8C, born 1937 Hermannsburg, not working
Reno Rabara, 7/8C, born 1939 Hermannsburg, yard building
Anita Rabara, born 1943 Hermannsburg, school girl


ELATJIRA family

Monasa Elatjira, 3/4C, born 1900 Alice Springs, head stockman,
  resident at Hermannsburg over 30 years
Eva Elatjira, F/B, born 1912 Hermannsburg, not working
Gregory Elatjira, 7/8C, born 1940 Hermannsburg, stockman
Glen Elatjira, 7/8C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, builder
Marilyn Elatjira, 7/8C, born 1944 Hermannsburg, school girl

ROBINJA family

Lucas Robinja, F/B, born 1903 Glen Helen Stn, Jay Creek resident,
  wife 3/4C deceased
Phillip Robinja, 7/8C, born 1938 Hermannsburg, assistant teacher
Grace Robinja, 7/8C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, cook

PAROULTJA family

Amy Paroultja, 3/4C, born 1931 Hermannsburg, fancy work
Seth Paroultja, F/B, born 1925 Hermannsburg, not working
Thomas Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1947 Hermannsburg, school boy
Jenny Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1949 Hermannsburg, school girl
Edith Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1952 Hermannsburg, school girl
Steward Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1955 Hermannsburg, pre-school\
Madelaine Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1957 Hermannsburg

Janice Paroultja, 3/4C, born 1918 Hermannsburg, garden
Reuben Paroultja, F/B, born 1916 Hermannsburg, artist
Errol Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1954 Hermannsburg,
Helmot Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1934 Hermannsburg, not working
Christine Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1946 Hermannsburg, school
Anthony Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1944 Hermannsburg, school
  (may be Anthonia)
Katherine Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, school
Sonia Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1950 Hermannsburg, school
Hubert Paroultja, 7/8C, born 1952 Hermannsburg, school


KUNOTH family

Stewart Kunoth, H/C, no longer at Hermannsburg
Theresa Kunoth, F/B, born 1921 Hermannsburg, hospital worker
Janie Kunoth, 3/4C, born 1952 Hermannsburg, pre-school

UNKWANAKA family

William Unkwanaka, 3/4C, born 1903 Henbury Station, gardener,
  at Hermannsburg for 20 years
Naomi Unkwanaka, F/B, born 1903 Glen Helen Stn, infirm
Paul Unkwanaka, 7/8C, born 1935 Hermannsburg, at Areyonga
Nuhusson Unkwanaka, 7/8C, born 1944 Hermannsburg, school
Kingsley Unkwanaka, 7/8C, born 1948 Hermannsburg, school
Pauline Unkwanaka, 7/8C, born 1947 Hermannsburg, school
Merle Unkwanaka, 7/8C, born 1952 Hermannsburg, school

John Unkwanaka, 7/8C, born 1932 Hermannsburg, wood carter
Stella Unkwanaka, 7/8C, born 1934 Hermannsburg, deceased
Elfreda Unkwanaka, 7/8C, born 1953 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Lawrence Unkwanaka, 7/8C, born 1955 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Shirley Unkwanaka, 7/8C, born 1957 Hermannsburg, pre-school

Mary Stewart (nee Unkwanaka), 7/8C, born 1933 Hermannsburg, not working
Rupert Steward, H/C, born 1932, not at Hermannsburg

John and Mary are also children of William and Naomi.

JALBALJERI family

Lilly Jalbaljeri, H/C, born 1943 Tempe Downs, house girl
  Father is Jack O'Brien and mother is Pantjita, F/B


MALBUNKA family

Parents of Malbunka now resident at Jay Creek

Patrick Malbunka, 7/8C, born 1933 Hermannsburg, not working
Lorna Malbunka, F/B, born 1935 Hermannsburg, not working
Everard Malbunka, 15/16C, born 1952 Hermannsburg, school
Patsy Malbunka, 15/16C, born 1955 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Myra Malbunka, 15/16C, born 1956 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Sybil Malbunka, 15/16C, born 1957 Hermannsburg, pre-school

Joyce Malbunka, 7/8C, born 1932 Hermannsburg, not working
Colin Malbunka, F/B, born 1930 Haast Bluff, not working,
  at Hermannsburg since marriage
Anthony Malbunka, 15/16C, born 1950 Hermannsburg, school
Lazarus Malbunka, 15/16C, born 1954 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Ralph Malbunka, 15/16C, born 1956 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Mildred Malbunka, 15/16C, born 1958 Hermannsburg, pre-school

Vernon Malbunka, 7/8C, born 1939 Hermannsburg, stockman

Murion Malbunka, 7/8C, born 1940 Hermannsburg, laundry

Adelaine Malbunka, 7/8C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, hospital worker

Violet Malbunka, 7/8C, born 1945 Hermannsburg, school

Clarobelle Malbunka, 7/8C, born 1949 Hermannsburg, school

Patrick, Joyce, Vernon, Murion, Adelaine, Violet
and Clarobelle appear to be siblings.


COULTHARD family

Jack Coulthard, H/C, born 1920 Tempe Downs Stn, working at Palm Valley,
  illiterate
Tilly Coulthard, F/B, born 1928 Hermannsburg, not working, illiterate
Syd Coulthard, 3/4C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, school
Kevin Coulthard, 3/4C, born 1944 Hermannsburg, school
Millie Coulthard, 3/4C, born 1946 Hermannsburg, school
Selma Coulthard, 3/4C, born 1954 Hermannsburg, pre-school

LAKIN family

Harold Lakin, H/C, born 1932 Alice Springs, usually
  resides Alice Springs
Una Lakin, 7/8C, born 1931 Hermannsburg, house girl
Cedric Lakin, 5/8C, born 1951 Hermannsburg, school
Evance Lakin, 5/8C, born 1953 Hermannsburg, pre-school
Cora Lakin, 5/8C, born 1957 Hermannsburg, pre-school

MULKATARA family

Lawra Mulkatara, 3/4C, born 1918 Hermannsburg, piece work, rugs
Roatz Mulkatara, F/B, born 1916 Haast Bluff, builder
Ernst Mulkatara, 7/8C, born 1942 Hermannsburg, school
Gross Mulkatara, 7/8C, born 1950 Hermannsburg, school

AMMERANN family

Rodney Ammerann, 3/4C, born 1950 Jay Creek, school boy
  Father unknown and mother Anna F/B

FLY family

Fred Fly, 3/4C, born 1938 Hermannsburg, wood center (contract)
Ernestine Fly, F/B, born 1938 Hermannsburg, pregnant

No children as yet. Rest of Fred's family is in Alice Springs.


MOTNA family

Eugene Motna, 3/4C, born 1915 Hermannsburg, not working
Cyril Motna, F/B, born 1920 Hermannsburg, heat tanner
Ernie Motna, 7/8C, born 1937 Hermannsburg, kitchen
Carol Motna, 7/8C, born 1946 Hermannsburg, school
Elijah Motna, 7/8C, born 1938 Hermannsburg, stockman and driver

Total is 193 persons.

This report is signed by Colin Macleod Patrol Officer.

Note Colin Macleod is the author of the following books

     (1) Patrol in the Dreamtime
    Author is Colin Macleod
    Published 1997 by Mandarin (Reed Books Australia)

     (2) A Strong Song
    Author is Colin Macleod
    Published 2004 Central Queensland University Press


                   HERMANNSBURG SHCHERER CORRESPONDENCE

CRS E944
Item Hermannsburg, CA 7112
National Archives of Australia, Darwin Office
Letter dated 19. 6.1961 with comments on people in the
Register of Wards and other information.

Lenie Namatjira, born at Raggatt's Well. Lenny in the
Register of Wards, page 159, is a male child born 1949.
This is not the same person at Lenie Namatjira as
Lenie Namatjira is a girl. Details are
Lenie Namatjira, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda, born 26.12.1951,
female.

Kate / Kwiata. This girl's father is not Snowy but is
Matthew Campbell, a 3/4C. Thus Kate is 7/8C. Her brothers
are Philip F/B and Robert F/B.  Kwiata is attending
school at Hermannsburg.

Rodney Njanananu is attending school at Hermannsburg.

John Ilbilarku Njuntintanu. Should be spelt in similar
fashion to Loni Njuntintanu.

Meryl Namatjira, born about the beginning of 1958.

Rubina Namatjirawas born 1903. See Hermannsburg Church
Register.

Salomo Arengkeraka. Spelling correction. Was spelt as
Rengkeraka.

Dulcie Njanananu died 25. 8.1956

Elizabeth Njanananu is attending school at Hermannsburg,
not Papunya.


Gottlieb, Nettie, Amos Graham and Deborah Ingkamala.
This is a family.
Nettie is a F/B as is Gottlieb. Gottlieb and Nettie were
legally married on 10. 4.1960. Gottlieb was declared a
Ward but not Nettie.

Unmatjera is a tribal name. Scherer prefers this to
the spelling Anmatjera.

Details about the name and family Unggwanaka.
Family is:
John Unggwanaka
Carlien Unggwanaka
John Lorenz Unggwanaka
Mentions variations on spellings
Unggwanaka - Ungwanaka
Malbangka - Malbunka
Mangeraka
Knuarea - Warai (class name)

Tribal names Loritja synonymous with Kukata
Anmatjera synonymous with Unmatjera

Sibyl Malbangka. Christian name spely Sibyl not Sybil.

Isabel 13/16C. Parents are Immanuel and Mavis (nee Rabinga) 5/8C.
Immanuel's former name was Long Benny and his tribe Unmatjera.
Does not appear in Register of Wards.

Mentions contesting of the Ingkamala estate.

Now follow some Appendices.


Appendix 1 - Hermannsburg Mission, Residents of Hermannsburg
             to be declared Wards.

Alexander Mamaluka, Group Paltara, Tribe Aranda, born 1895, male

Amos Graham Ingkamala, Group Ngala, Tribe Aranda, born 9. 8.1959, male

Annabel Juliana Ngalkin, Group Pangata, Tribe Pitjantjara,
born 2. 5.1959, female

Anthony Ingkamala, Group Ngala, Tribe Aranda, born 25. 5.1948, male

Archie Penhall, Group Purula, Tribe South Aranda, born about 1910, male
Not to be identified with Archie Pitjana in the Register of Wards
page 44 as Pijana suggests Group Mbitjana. Archie Penhall comes from
Tempe, but his age is estimated as lower than 59 years.
The following comment comes from page 7 of this correspondence.
Note about Archie and Tjikalji and family. I (Scherer) have now
established that Archie Pitjana (Register of Wards page 44) is
Archie Cameron, an ex-police tracker named after Police Officer
Cameron at Alice Well. His native name is Keli and Marriage Class
(Group) is Mbitjana, however he is much older than 59, according
to Ludwig Balkua who is 68 yrs and at Hermannsburg. Archie Penhall
takes his name from George Penhall, farmer near Salisbury, South
Australia, for whom he worked for 9 years including the War Years,
and his father was Old Friday (Njumpu) and mother Tjentjina.

Barbara (Rubuntja), Group Panangka, Tribe Pitjantjara,
born about 1952, female. Barbara was born at Kulgera and is the
child of Bessie Mantakura and her deceased husband Pitjantjara Jimmy.
Bessie was legally married to Ferdinand Rubuntja at Henbury on
12. 5.1961. Probably not to be identified with Barbara, born
1.12.1954 at Erldunda on Welfare manuscript page 5.

Beryl Entata, Group Nangala, Tribe Loritja, born 7. 2.1960, female

Bessie Mantakura Rubuntja, Group Mbitjana, Tribe Loritja,
born about 1933, female


Billy Penhall, Group Kamara, Tribe South Arunda, male
Son of Archie Penhall above and born at Angas Downs. Named Billy
by Milton Liddle. See Registry Office for birthdate.

Bob Malbangka, Group Purula, born 20. 5.1957, male
Child of Kathleen and Jonah, both F/B parents. Adopted by
Hesekiel and Della Malbangka at Hermannsburg. His mother
Kathleen died at Alice Springs Hospital.

Bryan Penhall, Group Kamara, Tribe South Aranda, born 27.12.1960, male
Son of Archie above and youngest brother to Billy.

Cecilia Brown, Group Paltara, Tribe Anmatjera, born 9. 4.1957, female

Claude Njinjimata, Group Mbitjana, Tribe South Aranda,
born 10. 2.1924, male

Cosam Rubuntja Mbutjina, Group Panangka, Tribe Aranda,
born 14.12.1960, male

Cyril Ross, Group Panangka, Tribe Anmatjera, born 21. 9.1959, male
Child of Leslie and Lorna Ross, formerly of Jay Creek. Leslie is
the son of George Ross (Jiramba) named after the prospector
Alec Ross.

Deborah Ingkamala, Group Ngala, Tribe Aranda, born 5. 4.1961, female

Donald Namatjira, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda, born 18. 6.1959, male

Edna Kantawara, Group Napurula, Tribe Loritja, born 10. 5.1937, female
Edna is the daughter of Amanda Kantawara (Aranda), according to native
law of patrilenial descent she is Loritja like her father; her
brothers Edgar and Horace should also be listed as Loritja. Edna used
to consort with Davie Njikurtjilpi; evidently they were both absent
from Hermannsburg at the time of the census; Davie soon deserted
Edna and is now living with Trudy Sharpe at Jay Creek. Davie has not
been at Hermannsburg for at least the past three years. They were
never legally married and are regarded as 'divorced'.


Elizabeth Jane Mokutarinja, Group Knuarea, Tribe Loritja,
born 25. 4.1960, female

Emma Malbangka, Group Paltara, Tribe Aranda, born 25. 5.1911, female
Was tribally married many years ago to Billy Button, but has long
been 'divorced' by him; has one child, Alice 7/8C, born to them.
Emma's father Hesekiel is still alive at Hermannsburg.

Entjibati Mentja, Group Napurula, Tribe Pitjantjara,
born about 1899, female
Listed on Welfare manuscript page 24 as Injabadi. Please adopt
Hermannsburg spelling. Living in tribal marriage with
Tempe Mick (Mentja).

Erna Ngalkin, Group Pangata, Tribe Pitjantjara, born about 1951, female

Garnette Kantawara, Group Pangata, Tribe Loritja, born 28. 9.1957, female
Ex-nuptial daughter of Edna and Davie, see above.

Garry Meneri, Group Kamara, Tribe Loritja, born 14. 7.1958, male

Gordon Kauutjimu Palapanta, Group Tjungaraii, Tribe Pintubi,
born about 1941, male
Born at Mount Wedge, father is Nabi and mother is Pitjiuka. Gordon
is listed on the front page of the Welfare Manuscript. He is living
at Hermannsburg.

Gottlieb Inkamala, Group Mbitjana, Tribe Aranda, born 15. 2.1934, male
Was legally married on 10. 4.1960 to Nettie (daughter of
Brenda Njintenaka), whose name has been omitted from the original
Register of Wards. Both parents and two children should be declared.

Harry Mangeraka, Group Tapanangka, Tribe Loritja, born about 1905, male
Was legally married to Hedwig on 2. 8.1959. This man's name appears on
Welfare Manuscript page 24 as Harry Tutalbinya (Tapananga) and consort
Edrich. Delete Edrich. Hedwig Mangeraka has already been declared a
Ward, Register page 159.

Harold Meneri, Group Kamara, Tribe Loritja, born 5.12.1960, male


Irmgard McNamara, Group Kamara, Tribe ?Mungari, born 29.12.1957, female
Irmgard's grandfather, Dudley McNamara, came from the vicinity of
Elsie Station, Roper River. Surnamed after old Bill McNamara,
leaseholder of former Boatswain's Hole Station below Areyonga.

Janet Ingkamala, Group Ngala, Tribe Aranda, born 29. 4.1943, female
Daughter of Lorraine and Adolf Ingkamala deceased who was re-declared
a ward. Lorraine and youngest son Joseph are listed as Wards.It would
be better for the whole family to be so declared.

Jeffrey Wheeler, Group Panangka, Tribe Loritja, born 15. 1.1931, male
Son of Efraim and Leah. Omitted in original census.

Josephine, Group Napanangka, Tribe Loritja, born 12. 3.1961, female
Child of Puntungka (Tapangati) and deaf-dumb Tilly (Napaltari);
child born in Alice Springs. Parents now living at Hermannsburg.

Julie (Rubuntja), Group Panangka, Tribe Pitjantjara,
born about 1957, female
Child of Bessie Mantakura Rubuntja and sister of Barbara. Julie
was born at Victory Downs. Both children in all probability be
legally adopted by their new foster-father Ferdinand.

Kentjiki, Tribe Pitjantjara, born about 1943, male
Son of Tempanna (Tantangaranta) and Imantura, both living at
Hermannsburg. Was born at Imbinkiri.

Kevin Namatjira, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda, born 25.12.1958, male

Larry Ljatjita, Group Tapanangka, Tribe Kukata, born about 1899, male
Listed in Welfare manuscript page 22, where 1894 probably estimates
his age too highly. Has been living at Hermannsburg past two years.

Lennie Namatjira, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda, born 26.12.1951, female
There is a Lenny listed on page 159 in the Register of Wards, year of
birth given as 1949 and no marriage class (Group). Nobody could identify
this person with Oscar Namatjira's son (actually daughter) who was
definately born on the date given above at Raggatt's Well.


Lois Penhall, Group Kamara, Tribe South Aranda, born 5. 8.1958, female
Born at Hermannsburg as child of Archie and Tjikalji; also Ludwig below.

Ludwig Penhall, Group Kamara, Tribe South Aranda, born 16. 6.1956, male
See above.

Margaret Malbangka, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda, born 21. 2.1959, female
Child of Traugott and Lotty (Rosie) Malbangka, both F/B.
Neither parents have been registered as Wards. Traugott is son of
Hesekiel and brother to Gustav, Jeremiah, Colin, etc.

Loretta McNamara, Group Kamara, Tribe ?Mungari, born 28. 8.1960, female

Marianne Namatjira, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda, born 23. 1.1960, female

Marigold Ingkamala, Group Ngala, Tribe Aranda, born 7. 8.1953, female
Sister to Janet, Anthony and Joseph, children of Adolf and Lorraine.

Matthew Meneri, Group Kamara, Tribe Loritja, born 25. 9.1956, male

Marjorie Elvida Malbangka, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda,
born 22.11.1960, female
This child was officially registered as Marjorie Elvida, though she is
generally called Elvida. Not uncommon.

Maureen Wheeler, Group Pangata, Tribe Loritja, born 28. 5.1954, female
Ex-nuptial child of Jeffrey Wheeler; child born at Alice Springs.
Mother alleged to be a Loritja woman Mali or Molly, Kaiukaiu's
daughter.

Meryl Namatjira, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda, born 1958, female
Unregistered child, born in Alice Springs.

Mildred Malbangka, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda, born 6. 6.1958, female

Millicent Entata, Group Ngala, Tribe Loritja, born 16. 6.1957, female

Minnie Mokutarinja, Group Knuarea, Tribe Loritja, born 11. 9.1958, female


Moiuta Namatjira, Group Nakamara, Tribe Pintubi, born about 1930, female
Enos Namatjira's wife. Not to be identified with Moida, Pitjantjara,
born 1928, in Register of Wards page 51, nor with Mowita Napaltari,
Pintubi, born 1937, in Register of Wards page 153 (who is probably
the widow of Nahum Malbangka).
Moiuta Namatjira's father was tribal elder Tjoltjirkna and her mother
was Malunka.

Nettie Ingkamala, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda, born 9.11.1942, female
Name omitted from original Register of Wards. Father was
Epafras Ntamintana and mother was Brenda Njintenaka. Was legally
married to Gottlieb Ingkamala on 10. 4.1960.

Nitjia Felicia Brown, Group Paltara, Tribe Anmatjera,
born 19. 4.1959, female
Please note correct order of personal names, as officially registered.
Names as listed on Welfare manuscript page 24 have been wrongly changed
about. Please correct.

Pixie (Brown), Group Pangata, Tribe Pitjantjara, born 14. 7.1950, female, H/C
Mother Nellie (Nali) alleges father of child to have been white man named
Jack Bailey. Child is therefore grouped according to its mother's marriage
class (Group). Would it be advisable to declare this child a ward to
preserve unity of family.
Nellie Brown, native name Nali, Group Purula, is in most probability
to be identified with Nellie in the Register of Wards page 47, Tribe Loritja,
born 1925 Erldunda. She was legally married to Micah Brown on
2. 8.1959 after Christian union only with Micah at Erldunda on 20. 4.1956.

Peter Mokutarinja, Group Knuarea, Tribe Loritja, born 15. 7.1956, male

Ralph Malbangka, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda, born 9. 2.1956, male
By an error or through lack of information Ralph's mother
Joyce (nee Rabinja) was declared a ward in the original census,
whereas she is only 5/8C. Consequently all the children  are 13/16C,
namely Anthony, Lazarus, Ralph, Mildred, Marjorie. Anthony, father Colin,
Joyce and Lazarus are published as wards, see Register of Wards
pages 149-152. Unless mother and children are exempted, it is better all
children have equal civil status and all are declared.


Roma Raberaba, Group Pangata, Tribe Aranda, born 2. 2.1961, female

Rubina Namatjira, Group Ngala, Tribe Loritja, born about 1903, female
Why was Rubina's name originally omitted from the Register of Wards.
Was this intended to add to her and Albert's prestige. Her husband
was never at any time declared a citizen. Why not bring her under the
full protection and assistance of Welfare; all her sons and one
daughter are wards.

Rose, Group Napanangka, Tribe Loritja, born 8. 5.1959, female
Born at Papunya as child of Puntungka and deaf-dumb Tilly. Refer to
Registry for date of birth. Now living at Hermannsburg.

Salomoa Rengkeraka, Group Ngala, Tribe Aranda, born 2.10.1940, male
Brothers Sylvester and Athenasius are incorrectly surnamed Titus after
their father. Native custom is always to name after the grand-father,
in this case Renkeraka.

Samuel Wibantji Richardson, Group Tapangati, Tribe Pitjantjara,
born 11. 8.1959, male
Please rectify incorrect information on Welfare manuscript page 25.
Child was officially registered as above. Wibantji is not a marriage
Group name, as the Pitjantjara do not have any such names.

Siglinda Ingkamala, Group Knuarea, Tribe Anmatjera, born 24. 5.1937, female
Daughter of Lawrence and Minna Katakaringa, both wards. Siglinda's
husband is Max Ingkamala. All nine Ingkamala sons and daughters married
fullblood spouses, except two who married half-caste spouses.
All F/B spouses are declared wards; Siglinda was the only one omitted.
Until her marriage is legalized, she should be declared a ward like
all the rest.

Siglinda Margaret Ingkamala, Group Ngala, Tribe Aranda,
born 28. 7.1959, female

Stephen Walbangura, Group Paltara, Tribe Loritja, born 23.12.1956, male

Strath Meneri, Group Kamara, Tribe Loritja, born 21.11.1958, male


Susan Jezebel Namatjira, Group Knuarea, Tribe Aranda,
born 10. 9.1960, female

Sylvia Mbutjina, Group Panangka, Tribe Aranda, born 29. 9.1958, female
Listed under Jay Creek in Welfare manuscript page 26, but living with
her parents at Hermannsburg for the past two or three years.

Tjikalji Penhall, Group Panangka, Tribe Pitjantjara,
born about 1935, female
Please particularly note the spelling of this Pitjantjara name.
Nellie was the appelation given to her by Joe O'Brien at Tempe.
It may be better for her to retain this as an European name.
Wife of Archie (Purula). Both now living at Hermannsburg with family.

Tjantjingu Namatjira, Group Mbitjana, Tribe Loritja,
born about 1936, female
Wife of Keith Namatjira, and daughter of George Tjangala.

Tempe Mick Mentja, Group Tapanangka, Tribe South Aranda,
born about 1906, male

Una Lankin, Group Mbitjana, Tribe Aranda, born 10. 8.1931, female
Was tribally married to (Murphy) Harold Lankin, but has been
deserted and regarded as 'divorced' for several years. Harold
Lankin H/C and born about 1932, was last known to be working
a few months ago near Deep Well.

Wilson Meneri, Group Kamara, Tribe Loritja, born July 1948, male
Born at Haast's Bluff, but exact date unknown except July 1948.

Note

Nellie Brown, native name Nali, Group Purula, is in most probability
to be identified with Nellie in the Register of Wards page 47, Tribe Loritja,
born 1925 Erldunda. She was legally married to Micah Brown on
2. 8.1959 after Christian union only with Micah at Erldunda on 20. 4.1956.

Sophia Uraiakuraia, native name Ljonga, according to official Hermannsburg
Mission Register Sophia was born in year 1888. This will be the most exact
date available. Her marriage class (Group) is Ngala and she was born at
the original Glen Helen Station known as Ljatnima. Her name appears in the
Register of Wards page 166. Her deceased husband was Moses.


Appendix 2 - Persons living elsewhere than at Hermannsburg
             to be declared wards.

Aaron, Tribe ?Pitjantjara, born 21. 1.1956, male
No other particulars known except mother is Nora and father is Jubaii.

Angus, born 19. 1.1956, male
Child of Winnie and Harper, whereabouts and identity unknown.

Audrey Wood (Titi), Group Napangati, Tribe Pitjantjara,
born about 1954 ?Papunya, female
Born at Oodnadatta of Snowy Wood and his wife, blind Kauinga,
allnow living at Papunya. See Kauinga below.

Bernard Martin Nganananu, Group Tjupurula, Tribe Loritjan
born 21. 7.1959 ?Papunya, male
Listed in Welfare manuscript page 22. Also pronounced Nganananu.

Davie Njikurtjilpi, Group Tjapanangka, Tribe Pitjantjara,
born 1. 1.1935, male
Also known as Johnnie; native personal name Njumana.
Divie is only a mispronunciation for Davie, see Welfare
manuscript page 24. Has not been Edna Kantawara's consort
for some years, but is now married to Trudy Sharpe at Jay
Creek or Amoonguna.

Dulcie Njanananu, Group Napurula, Tribe Loritja,
born 3. 8.1956 ?Papunya, female, deceased

Elizabeth Njanananu, Group Napurula, Tribe Loritja,
born 22. 9.1953 Hermannsburg, female

John Ilbilarku Njuntintanu, Group Kamara, Tribe Loritja,
born 22. 4.1960 Glen Helen, male
No record of a John born 9. 2.1960

Kauinga Wood, Group Napurula, Tribe Loritja, born about 1900
at ?Papunya, female

Kwiata 7/8C, Group Nangala, Tribe Loritja, born 1.10.1949
at Hermannsburg, female


Lola, born 12. 3.1953, female
No information except the parents were Tommy and Ngalka.

Loni Ljuntintanu, Group Panangka, Tribe Loritja, born about 1935
at Glen Helen, female
Not Lorrie in the Register of Wards page 17, given as Aranda.
Loni is native name; her mother is Polly Nannaua and her father
is Ilbaljawurka. Loni has Multu, Gillie and John (children).

Lotty Malbangka (Rosie), Group Kamara, Tribe Aranda,
born about 1930 at Papunya, female.
Wife of Traugott; mother is Ngula and father is Francis (Willy).

Long Peter Maiputa, Group Tjupurula, Tribe Kukata, born
about 1916, male
This could possibly be the Maiputta at the foot of page 152
in the Register of Wards. He is the younger brother of
Barney Njuntintanu who might be identifiable with Barney Multa
on mid-page 11 in the Register. However, he is Kukata (Loritja),
not Aranda and since he is an older brother of Peter he would be
born closer to 1914 (not 1920). I know of no Aranda Barney.

Michael Rubuntja, Group Panangka, Tribe Aranda, male
Mervyn Rubuntja, Group Panangka, Tribe Aranda, male
These two boys are the children of Winton Rubuntja and his wife
Cynthia (Kamara), who is the daughter of Luther Uburtja, Present
whereabouts of family unknown, probably Amoonguna.

Nita Kauinga, Group Nangala, Tribe Loritja, born 6. 6.1959 ?Papunya, female
Robert, Group Tjangala, Tribe Loritja, born 5. 6.1957, male
Children of Etjiwalja and Snowy.

Rodney Njanananu, Group Tjupurula, Tribe Loritja, born 6. 9.1950, male

Snowy Wood, Group Tapanangka, Tribe Pitjantjara, born about 1912
?Papunya, male

Traugott Malbangka, Group Paltara, Tribe Aranda, born 8.10.1922
Papunya, male


Appendix 3 - Deceased

Names to be eliminated from the Hermannsburg list on the
Welfare manuscript.

David Fly (twin), born 27.11.1958, died 20. 1.1959

Lindsay Fly (twin), born 27.11.1958, died 10.12.1958

John Palapanta, born 31. 7.1960, died 3. 8.1960
This child was registered at Hermannsburg as Cyrus, but named
at Alice Springs as John, according to Registrar's information.

Rachel Meneri, born 20. 8.1960, died 14. 4.1961


NOTE:

Note about Archie and Tjikalji and family. I (Scherer) have now
established that Archie Pitjana (Register of Wards page 44) is
Archie Cameron, an ex-police tracker named after Police Officer
Cameron at Alice Well. His native name is Keli and Marriage Class
(Group) is Mbitjana, however he is much older than 59, according
to Ludwig Balkua who is 68 yrs and at Hermannsburg. Archie Penhall
takes his name from George Penhall, farmer near Salisbury, South
Australia, for whom he worked for 9 years including the War Years,
and his father was Old Friday (Njumpu) and mother Tjentjina.


Appendix 4 - Residents of Hermannsburg NOT to be declared Wards

Lorraine Ngalaia, Group Pangata, Tribe Kukata, born 4. 5.1959,
female, 15/16C

Baxter Inalanga, Group Ngala, Tribe Loritja, born 16. 3.1951, male, 7/8C

Beulah Ingkamala, Group Ngala, tribe Aranda, born 28.11.1953, female, 5/8C

Carl Ingkamala, Group Ngala, Tribe Aranda, born 18. 6.1958, male, 7/8C

Carlien Unggwanaka, Group Paltara, Tribe South Aranda,
born 15. 6.1958, female, 11/16C

Cedric Lankin, Group Mbitjana, born 11. 6.1951, male, 3/4C

Cornelius Richard Ebatarinja, Group Kamara, Tribe Aranda,
born 15. 7.1959, male, 15/16C

Dan Abbott, Group Mbitjana, Tribe Aranda, male, 5/8C

Elfrieda Unggwanaka, Group Mbitjana, Tribe South Aranda,
born 7. 7.1953, 15/16C

Gertrude Ebatarinja, Group Kamara, Tribe Aranda, born 10. 4.1956, 15/16C

Hildegard Kantawara, Group Kamara, tribe Loritja, born 1. 1.1958, 7/8C

John Unggwanaka, Group Ngala, Tribe South Aranda, born about
October 1928, male, 7/8C
Unless John Unggwanaka has himself applied for himself and children
to be declared Wards, I think it would be only fair to leave him
and his family exempted as hitherto.

Lorenz Unggwanaka, Group Mbitjana, Tribe South Aranda, born 9. 3.1955,
male, 15/16C

Max Parerultja, Group Paltara, Tribe Aranda, born 20. 2.1959, male, 7/8C


Mervyn Inalanga, Group Ngala, Tribe Loritja, born 20. 6.1956, male, 7/8C

Preston Inalanga, Group Ngala, Tribe Loritja, born 22. 9.1958, male, 7/8C

Roland Uburtja, Group Kamara, tribe Loritja, born 3. 2.1940, male,
NW by marriage
Roland Uburtja is a non-ward by virtue of his legal marriage to
Helen Ratara (or Raggatt) on 10. 4.1958; likewise their children.
Helen is 7/8C and daughter of Obed Raggatt (exempted). There are
numerous other children at Hermannsburg in the above category.

Shirley Unggwanaka, Group Mbitjana, Tribe South Aranda, born 23. 9.1957,
female, 15/16C

Sibyl Malbangka, Group Paltara, Tribe Aranda, born 6. 2.1958,
female, 15/16C

Tony Katakarinja, Group Paltara, Tribe Anmatjera, born 5. 7.1958,
male, 13/16C

William Ebatarinja, Group Kamara, Tribe Aranda, born 24.11.1958, male, 7/8C

Note:

To the best of my knowledge the above information is correct, especially
that relating to degree of caste. The reason why I recommend that the above
children be NOT declared as Wards is that either or both parents are already
exempt from wardship and that other brothers and/or sisters in the same
respective families are also non-wards. My general aim is to preserve the
equality in civil status within the family as far as this is still possible.
There is already inequality in the status between two parents of some
families, without our wanting to carry this inequality over further among
the children in the families.


P A Scherer
19. 6.1961
Finke River Mission
Hermannsburg, N.T.